history of Hinduism:
Beliefs about the early development of Hinduism are currently in a state of
The classical theory of the origins of Hinduism traces the religion's roots
to the Indus valley civilization circa 4000 to 2200 BCE(1). The development
of Hinduism was influenced by many invasions over thousands of years. The
major influences occurred when light-skinned, nomadic "Aryan" Indo-European
tribes invaded Northern India (circa 1500 BCE) from the steppes of Russia
and Central Asia. They brought with them their religion of Vedism. These
beliefs mingled with the more advanced, indigenous Indian native beliefs,
often called the "Indus valley culture.". This theory was initially proposed
by Christian academics some 200 years ago. Their conclusions were biased by
their pre-existing belief in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament). The Book
of Genesis, which they interpreted literally, appears to place the creation
of the earth at circa 4,000 BCE, and the Noahic flood at circa 2,500 BCE.
These dates put severe constraints on the date of the "Aryan invasion," and
the development of the four Veda and Upanishad Hindu religious texts. A
second factor supporting this theory was their lack of appreciation of the
sophisticated nature of Vedic culture; they had discounted it as primitive.
2 The classical theory is now being rejected by increasing numbers of
archeologists and religious historians.
Emerging theory: The Aryan Invasion view of ancient Indian history has been
challenged in recent years by new conclusions based on more recent findings
in archaeology, cultural analysis, astronomical references, and literary
analysis. One scholar, David Frawley, has established a convincing argument
for this new interpretation. 3 Archeological digs have revealed that the
Indus Valley culture was not "destroyed by outside invasion, but...[by]
internal causes and, most likely, floods." The "dark age" that was believed
to have followed the Aryan invasion may never have happened. A series of
cities in India have been studied by archeologists and shown to have a level
of civilization between that of the Indus culture and later more highly
developed Indian culture, as visited by the Greeks. Finally, Indus Valley
excavations have uncovered many remains of fire altars, animal bones,
potsherds, shell jewelry and other evidences of Vedic rituals. "In other
words there is no racial evidence of any such Indo-Aryan invasion of India
but only of a continuity of the same group of people who traditionally
considered themselves to be Aryans...The Indo-Aryan invasion as an academic
concept in 18th and 19th century Europe reflected the cultural milieu of the
period. Linguistic data were used to validate the concept that in turn was
used to interpret archeological and anthropological data."
During the first few centuries CE, many sects were created, each dedicated
to a specific deity. Typical among these were the Goddesses Shakti and
Lakshmi, and the Gods Skanda and Surya.
Hindu beliefs and practices:
Categorizing the religion of Hinduism is somewhat confusing:
Hinduism has commonly been viewed in the west as a polytheistic religion -
one which worships multiple deities: gods and goddesses.
Some have viewed it as a monotheistic religion, because it recognizes only
one supreme God: the panentheistic principle of Brahman, that all reality is
a unity. The entire universe is seen as one divine entity who is
simultaneously at one with the universe and who transcends it as well.
Some view Hinduism as Trinitarian because Brahman is simultaneously
visualized as a triad: Brahma the Creator who is continuing to create new
Vishnu, (Krishna) the Preserver, who preserves these new creations. Whenever
dharma (eternal order, righteousness, religion, law and duty) is threatened,
Vishnu travels from heaven to earth in one of ten incarnations.
Shiva, the Destroyer, is at times compassionate, erotic and destructive.
Strictly speaking, Hinduism is a henotheistic religion -- a religion which
recognizes a single deity, but which recognizes other gods and goddesses as
facets or manifestations or aspects of that supreme God.
Most urban Hindus follow one of two major divisions within Hinduism:
Vaishnavaism: which generally regards Vishnu as the ultimate deity
Shivaism: which generally regards Shiva as the ultimate deity.
However, many rural Hindus worship their own village goddess or an earth
goddess. She is believed to rule over fertility and disease -- and thus over
life and death. The priesthood is less important in rural Hinduism:
non-Brahmins and non-priests often carry out ritual and prayer there.
Hindus believe in the repetitious Transmigration of the Soul. This is the
transfer of one's soul after death into another body. This produces a
continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth through their many
lifetimes. It is called samsara. Karma is the accumulated sum of ones good
and bad deeds. Karma determines how you will live your next life. Through
pure acts, thoughts and devotion, one can be reborn at a higher level.
Eventually, one can escape samsara and achieve enlightenment. Bad deeds can
cause a person to be reborn as a lower level, or even as an animal. The
unequal distribution of wealth, prestige, suffering are thus seen as natural
consequences for one's previous acts, both in this life and in previous
Hindus organize their lives around certain activities or "purusharthas."
These are called the "four aims of Hinduism," or "the doctrine of the
fourfold end of life." They are: The three goals of the "pravritti," those
who are in the world, are: dharma: righteousness in their religious life.
This is the most important of the three.
artha: success in their economic life; material prosperity.
kama: gratification of the senses; pleasure; sensual, sexual, and mental
The main goal for the "nivritti," those who renounce the world. is: moksa:
Liberation from "samsara," the This is considered the supreme end of
Meditation is often practiced, with Yoga being the most common. Other
activities include daily devotions, public rituals, and puja, a ceremonial
dinner for a God.
Hinduism has a deserved reputation of being highly tolerant of other
religions. Hindus have a saying: "Ekam Sataha Vipraha Bahudha Vadanti,"
which may be translated: "The truth is One, but different Sages call it by
stands for "Common Era." It is a new term that is
eventually expected to replace AD. The latter is an
abbreviation for "Anno Domini" in Latin or "the year of
the Lord" in English. The latter refers to the approximate
birth year of Yeshua ben Nazareth (a.k.a. Jesus Christ). CE and AD
have the same definition and value. 2000 CE = 2000 AD.
BCE stands for "Before
the common era." It is expected to replace BC, which
means "Before Christ." BC and BCE are also identical in
value. Most theologians and religious historians believe that the
approximate birth date of Yeshua of Nazareth (Jesus) was in the
fall, sometime between 4 and 7 BCE.
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